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4-2-1 engine exhaust systems
4-2-1 engine exhaust systems for automobiles are designed to ease the flow of exhaust gases of combustion leaving an internal combustion engine, thereby achieving optimal power output. Conventional exhaust systems, which are outfitted as standard components by automakers, are typically of the 4-1 type.
The system goes by the name "4-2-1" as a reference to the exhaust pipe layout for a 4-cylinder engine: four pipes (primary) come off the cylinder head, and merge into two pipes (secondary), which in turn finally link up to form one collector pipe. This collector then leads to the catalytic converter and muffler, before the exhaust gases finally leave the car through the tail pipe.
Generally, engines on road-going cars are designed to meet high power requirements only at higher ranges of rpm. This gives the car better performance on highways and low- traffic roads. But for local commuting - which includes driving on busy streets and narrow roads - involving operating in low-to-medium rpm for significant periods of time, car performance would get slightly degraded. 4-2-1 engine exhaust systems have been specifically designed to help in such scenarios. The 4-2-1 design of the exhaust header shifts the power band slightly to the left of the normal engine power band, thereby providing higher output at middle-range rpm. This can be realised by conducting experimental tests on an engine dynamometer.
This type of exhaust system provides a significant mechanical advantage by creating low back pressureat the engine's exhaust valves. Lower back pressure can improve the engine performance by optimising the exhaust gas flow characteristics, decreasing turbulence and mixing, thereby transmitting higher torque at mid-range rpm.
Since 4-2-1 headers merge into two pipes before linking up to form the collector, there is usually more ground clearance.
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